Dear Teachers and Administrators,
Our ELLs bring a wealth of experience, primary language skills, diversity and culture to our sites. Enjoy the excitement of watching your students grow in their English language skills and become a part of your school community.ELD Strategies and Teacher Resources
Teachers are to provide both integrated and designated ELD strategies throughout the day within their classroom. The new CA ELA/ELD framework defines these terms and provides examples and vignettes for each grade level. The CA Common Core State Standards along with the new CA ELD standards define what students are expected to know and do at each grade level. The new CA ELA/ELD framework provides a blueprint for implementation of both ELA and ELD standards in transitional kindergarten-12th grade. This framework provides practical teaching strategies that support “how” to reach the goals of the CCSS and ELD standards.
Please go to your specific grade level in the framework for more ELD strategies.
Example for grades 4/5 (taken from Chapter 5 page 45):
Integrated ELD refers to ELD throughout the day and across the disciplines for all ELs. In integrated ELD, the CA ELD Standards are used in ELA and in all disciplines in addition to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and other content standards to support ELs’ linguistic and academic progress. Throughout the school day, ELs in grades four and five should engage in activities where they listen to, read, analyze, interpret, discuss, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. Through rich experiences that are provided through English, they develop English, and they build confidence and proficiency in demonstrating their content knowledge through oral presentations, writing, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. In addition, when teachers support their students’ development of language awareness, or how English works in different situations, they gain an understanding of how language is a complex, dynamic, and social resource for making meaning. Through these intellectually rich activities that occur across the disciplines, ELs develop proficiency in understanding and using advanced levels of English and in “shifting register” based on discipline, topic, task, purpose, audience, and text type.
Designated ELD is a protected time during the regular school day where teachers use the CA ELD Standards as the focal standards in ways that build into and from content instruction so that ELs develop critical English language skills, knowledge, and abilities needed for content learning in English. Designated ELD should not be viewed as separate and isolated from ELA, science, social studies, mathematics, and other disciplines but rather as an opportunity during the regular school day to support ELs to develop the discourse practices, grammatical understandings, and vocabulary knowledge necessary for successful participation in academic tasks across the content areas. A logical scope and sequence for English language development is aligned with the texts used and tasks implemented in ELA and other content instruction.Figure 5.17. Framing Questions for Lesson Planning (taken from Chapter 5- page 79 & 80)
Framing Questions for Lesson Planning
Framing Questions for All Students
Add for English Learners
- What are the big ideas and culminating performance tasks of the larger unit of study, and how does this lesson build toward them?
- What are the learning targets for this lesson, and what should students be able to do at the end of the lesson?
- Which clusters of CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy does this lesson address?
- What background knowledge, skills, and experiences do my students have related to this lesson?
- How complex are the texts and tasks that I will use?
· What are the English language proficiency levels of my students?
· Which CA ELD Standards amplify the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy at students’ English language proficiency levels?
· What language might be new for students and/or present challenges?
- How will students make meaning, express themselves effectively, develop language, and learn content? How will they apply or learn foundational skills?
- What types of scaffolding, accommodations, or modifications will individual students need to effectively engage in the lesson tasks?
- How will my students and I monitor learning during and after the lesson, and how will that inform instruction?
· How will students interact in meaningful ways and learn about how English works in collaborative, interpretive, and/or productive modes?
Figure 11.4: Addressing the Unique Needs of ELs (taken from Chapter 11 pages 19-20)
English language development and access to the academic curriculum. ELLs face the unique challenge of developing proficiency in English while simultaneously mastering grade-level academic content. Thus, in addition to learning social English, ELLs must develop the academic language and literacy skills needed to meaningfully access the grade-level curriculum. As ELLs are developing such skills, they require appropriate instructional modifications and supports to make academic content comprehensible. To improve ELL outcomes, schools might take actions to ensure that both ESL and content-area teachers are well prepared to employ effective instructional strategies that support ELLs’ dual English language development and academic needs.
Culture and socialization needs. ELLs come from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and schools may be able to enhance ELLs’ educational experiences by taking that diversity into account. For example, schools might strive to support ELLs’ reading comprehension by choosing instructional texts with culturally-familiar content or by preparing ELLs with appropriate background knowledge when using texts with less familiar content. Furthermore, by fostering an appreciation for diversity within the school’s culture, schools may help to facilitate ELLs’ transition from home to school and make them feel valued for their cultural heritage and experiences.
familiarity with the U.S. system of schooling may make it difficult for parents of ELLs to stay informed about their children’s progress and become involved in school decisions and activities. Schools can take steps to ease obstacles to parent involvement by providing parent outreach supports, ensuring that school-related communications are disseminated in a language and mode that parents understand, and offering services such as ESL classes and workshops on navigating the school system.
Issues of isolation and segregation. Interactions with model English speakers can help facilitate ELLs’ English language development, yet for ELLs who reside in linguistically-isolated households or communities, attend segregated schools, or participate in classes separately from English- proficient peers, access to model English speakers can be limited. To increase this access, schools might choose to incorporate more inclusive teaching practices, use more heterogeneous student groupings, create structured opportunities for ELLs to engage with English-proficient peers, and train ELLs and non- ELLs in strategies for productive peer-to-peer interactions.
Interruptions in schooling or limited formal schooling. Some ELLs have experienced interruptions in their schooling, or arrive in U.S. schools with limited prior schooling. Such students possess varying levels of literacy in their native language and may need intensive and accelerated learning supports to help prepare them to participate meaningfully in academic classrooms. Schools may look for ways to better assess and address these students’ individualized learning needs and help them adjust to academic settings by offering short-term newcomer programs or other specialized strategies.
Exiting from ELL status. An important goal in serving ELLs is to help these students become proficient enough in English that they no longer require specialized supports to engage productively with academic content and can therefore exit from ELL status. Schools might use focused strategies to help ELLs—particularly those who have been in ELL status for many years—satisfy ELL exit criteria, which vary across states and districts but can include such factors as performance on the state English language proficiency assessment, performance on state content assessments, teacher recommendations, and classroom grades. Furthermore, once students transition out of ELL status, schools can continue to monitor their progress and provide tutoring, academic counseling, and other supports to former ELLs who need it.
High school completion. Adolescent ELLs face a limited time frame in which to develop English language and literacy skills, master academic content, and satisfy course requirements for graduation. Fitting in coursework that supports their English language development and acquisition of appropriately rigorous academic content can pose challenges. Schools can help mitigate those challenges by creating instructional supports that accelerate ELLs’ acquisition of English and academic content, afford opportunities for credit recovery, allow flexible scheduling, or provide extended instructional time.